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Published on November 28, 2022 / Topic : Environment
What Africa can learn from COP27
COP27, announced as a meeting dedicated to implementation, almost failed to live up to its promise. almost failed to deliver on its promise. Thanks to the tenacity of African negotiators, it was at the end of a diplomatic tug of war attempted by the most vulnerable countries that the conference concluded with an agreement on new financial mechanisms that had been promised for decades. Here is what can be retained from an African perspective.
H.E. Macky Sall, President of the Republic of Senegal and of the African Union, and António Guterres, Secretary General of the United Nations, during the COP27, © United Nations Climate Change Conference.
COP27 results for African countries
The 27th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP27), known as the implementation session, ended on November 19, 2022 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. The conference was held on the African continent, the continent most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The effects recorded are disproportionate since Africa has about 17% of the world's population but contributes only 4% of greenhouse gas emissions. According to the latest report by the Australian think tank " Institute for Economics and Peace ", of the 8 countries most at risk globally from the ecological threat, 7 are in sub-Saharan Africa. 
For the African delegations and the 45,000 participants, this conference was therefore a crucial issue, particularly in terms of dealing with the human and material damage inflicted by climate change. In Central Africa, home to the second largest tropical forest on the planet and important reserves of materials essential to the digital economy, the issue was the preservation of the forests of the Congo Basin, which are in the grip of deforestation. The ecosystem of the forest basin has a crucial function in the carbon cycle, and therefore, in the planetary climate balance. Its ecosystem is notably composed of peatlands that sequester about 29 billion tons of CO₂ (Mt CO₂), almost equivalent to the global emissions in 2021, equal to 37.9 Mt CO₂. 
Caption: Interview with Richard Amalvy, CEO of the Brazzaville Foundation, at COP27, © Voice of the Environment.
A trilateral agreement for large tropical forests
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is directly concerned because 60% of the basin's forests are located on its territory. Aware of its potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, the DRC has repositioned itself as a " solution country", ambitious and visionary, wishing to "leave the stage of intentions", as mentioned by Eve Bazaïba, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Environment of the DRC, ahead of the COP27. Announcing the pre-COP27 in Kinshasa in early October, the DRC continued its action on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Bali, signing an agreement with Brazil and Indonesia to develop the forest resources of three countries of the South that represent more than half of the world's tropical forests.
A promising synergy between the three African climate commissions
At the continental level, regional climate commissions were highlighted at COP27. In 2016, Africa had already displayed its climate ambitions at the last COP hosted on the continent, in Marrakech, when King Mohamed VI announced the creation of three climate commissions, on the occasion of the First African Summit on Action for Continental Co-Emergence. 
Six years later, on November 9, 2022, the Congo Basin Climate Commission (CBCC), one of the three entities created, coordinated by Minister Soudan Nonault of Congo, held a high-level side event at its pavilion.  The event was chaired by HRH Princess Lalla Hasnaa of Morocco, and brought together representatives of the 16 CCBC member countries as well as major technical and financial partners (TFPs), such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 4C Morocco, and the Development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC). The Brazzaville Foundation was present among the TFPs. The Chief Executive, Richard Amalvy, represented its Chairman, Jean-Yves Ollivier, who is also a Blue Fund goodwill ambassador.
Another very high-level meeting brought together the three climate commissions, with a view to creating synergies between the Congo Basin countries, the island states and the Sahel countries. The final communiqué revealed the intention of the countries concerned to create a mechanism to link these regional organisations in order to align advocacy and have more weight in the negotiations with potential financial organizations.
The issue of loss and damage
The decision -/CP.27 "Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan negotiated in the final hours of the conference, includes a landmark agreement to establish a fund for loss and damage from the most vulnerable countries. This fund could provide financing for loss and damage to many African countries, particularly affected by climate disasters. For this, the communiqué mentions the complementary nature of capacity building and technology transfer to maximize the effectiveness of financial support. Until the COP28 in Dubai, the "transition committee" will be responsible for producing recommendations to make these financing mechanisms operational. Finally, the industrialized countries also reiterated their commitment to limit the increase in global average temperature to 1.5 ℃ above pre-industrial levels. 
 Crezee, B., Dargie, G.C., Ewango, C.E.N. et al. Mapping peat thickness and carbon stocks of the central Congo Basin using field data. Nat. Geosci. 15, 639-644 (2022).https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00966-7
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